The Invisible Forces–the invisible hand, the invisible foot, and the invisible handshake–stem from Adam Smith, who discussed the invisible hand in The Wealth of Nations (1776), Book IV, Chapter 2. This idea was subsequently extended to “the invisible forces” by economist David Colander in Microeconomics, 2nd ed. (1995), pp. 17-19.
According to Colander:
the invisible hand refers to economic forces that influence human behavior
the invisible foot refers to legal and political forces that influence human behavior
the invisible handshake refers to social and historical forces that influence human behavior
Simply put, the invisible forces comprise a system that influences and is influenced by human behavior. Since this behavior takes place in a physical and biological environment, and influences that environment, matters relating to the physical and biological environment are also relevant. It is this broader view of economics that The Invisible Forces Weekly illustrates and explores.
The Invisible Forces Weekly is produced and published by Bruce Larson. You may contact him at: firstname.lastname@example.org.